Kola expeditions 1994-1997
Kuola I 23.4.1994
Jyväskylän kokouksen muistiinpanot:
Läsnä: Ola Graff, Katrin Korkina, Marju Sarv, Ene Viidang, Ilpo Saastamoinen
Lujarv: Oijar, Oirents, Vuavshes
Revda: Tshusöm (about 1.5 years)
Murmansk: A russian group performing Sami songs.
In 1994 the leaders met in Lovozero in order to be more nationalists. Everybody remembers, how difficult it was in the beginning to represent saami culture. Katrin felt the competition. Gurinov was one of the first (russian) beginning. The reason for Katrin to found Oijar. There were a negative attitude especially among the young people. There were no place to get together in the beginning of the 60’s.
Lujarv-group: Paula Konkova is the only person singing in the old style. They get the repertoire from Travina’s book. They have an accordeon in the group. No improvisation. The group has’nt the right intonation because they cannot pronounce saami in the right way. They stilize the melodies using only folklore materials.
In the Oijar in the beginning the accordeon but later they danced without accordeon accompaniment, only rattles and bells. (kiell) Lujarv group learned from the T.s book and Oijar : In the order establishing a culture you have to learn from the older people. The saamis differeentiate from the other ethnic groups. You can make differencies between georgian and armenian songs because they have an old style. But you have to find the new ways even.
Only the leader wrote the original songs for the accordeon but couldn’t write all the micro details. Lujavr is a good thing because otherwise Katrin didn’t begin with the authentic style with Oijar. Katrin had tape recorder for this purpose. She recorded with old type magnetophone with four tracks(?). The oldest tapes are from the 80’s in the beginning. The informants are not living anymore. She has cassettes - about ten. And copies from Petroskoi and Jaan Sarv, who had encouraged her. Some copies from Irina Travina. She sended some copies to Alexandra Antonova. She is living in Moscow. KK has litterated something of the material. Katrin new the background of the songs beforehand.
Katrin has asked once the material, but it is told that the material is only for scientific purposes owned by the sientists (the recorders). Irina Bulkova told (Duboltseva) that it isn’t right to transcribe the saami songs, becaus it will kill the culture (oral). Jakob Smirnov didn’t like the idea about saamis’ co-operation with the people from abroad. JS is the head of scientific cultural life in the Murmansk oblast. But his attitude is not the worst one concerning saami culture in generally.
Lovozero museum is interested in founding especially saami music archives. But the library would be a better place for the musical archives. They have not begun yet. The music department in the library the people could lend the books, cassettes etc.
The ethnographic museum of St Petersburg and the historical Museum in SP-burg, maybe even in Moscow. Igor Bogdanov has some extra material in Moscow. In Petroskoi Kert has maybe fieldwork notes in the Institute.
II Ola Graff told about the project plans. He was interested in the possible similarities especially between the south saami and the eastern saami music; epic texts and the improvisation in them.
The Kola saami people used the verb ‘joikseshgudde’. It meant a funny way of howling when somebody sang (drunk). This word was used when somebody couldn’t sing in a proper way. the right word is luvvt (est. lövvt) or levvt. So there are three types of pronounciation.
NJ, OG and IS: Improvisation, the new comparative material and to make oneself aquainted with the saami people, culture and geography. Maybe in the end of the project we’ll have aproximately about 100 hours new musical recordings.
The English will be the final language besides saami, russian and finnish (estonian).We have to connect the text and the music. The text shoudn’t be in phonetic form but in P.Lehtiranta way.
We are interested in Tonmalereien, russian influences, the relations between the text and the rhythms, the relations between skolt saami and the kildin saami. ‘The main problem is the luvvt tradition; the different types of luvvts, the different singing styles. Also imitative and symbolic musical forms. The child has a different personal jojk in comparison with the same person as an adult. Maybe the eastern saami music could throw the light to J.Fellman’s epic jojk texts; how they are possibly performed. Music, text and the context.
If there are different types of singing, so in which contexts they are performed? There has possibly been different types of jojking. What kind of poetical structures there could be in Kola saami music? ( Wiklund: there are no poetical structure in jojk texts.) In this context we should be very careful about the extra syllabes in the middle of the words.
There are at least improvisations and strophic forms. What is the amount of variations in the strophic forms?
The result: the books, CD:s, analyses, the ways how to teach the young generations to improvise and sing in the traditional way. The results should be available in Kola area. This should happen in co-operation with the saami people.
When will the first expedition happen? What is the role of Katrin? To make comments to all the material. She will be the consult in gathering the people to Lovozero and making contacts to the potential informants. She will transcribe and translate the original texts. Total amount is three different works.
Every transcription shoud be checked by two persons - a lingvist and a saami.
MS: saami-english, KK: saami-russian, LS:saami-russian (english?), Anna Prahova: field-work??? EV: translater and Klaudia’s material. JG: fieldwork, concerts, contacts etc.
IS: At first the list of collected material untill today. The overall view of the recorded material; transcribing the first phrases of every song and classifying them. The Kola saami notebook will be the first published book in this project.
Some thoughts afterwards:
1) The library in Lovozero should act as the archive of all collected Kola saami sound material. The library should ask the copies of collections owned by Igor Bogdanov, the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, the wax cylinders in St. Petersburg, Nils Henrik Siggu, the saami radio in Inari (Paula Konkova etc.), Irina Travina and the collections of Kert and others in the Petroskoi Institute of litterature and history.
At least the library should get the lists of the recorded material and the answer if the rights owners are willing to accept the scientific use of their material including transcriptions of sound and textual material and the rights to publish them. The possibility to publish some parts of the material in a audible form shoud be discussed afterwards. The Kola saami project shoud have the rights to copy this material for the scientific use. The project should know beforehand, what part of the material could be included to the project. Of course the project will pay all the material costs to the rights’ owners - including the work demanded for the copying work, cassettes, sending expenses etc.
The Kola saamis have the right to listen their cultural treasures without needing to travel to other places outside Lovozero for those purposies.
2) Every participant of the project should be sended an official paper from the Tromsø Museum in order to help them, when they will ask about the permission to get copies of some articles conserning the Kola saami music etc. This paper tells the general idea of the project (scientific and cultural aims) and the names of the participants.
1) Ilpo is going to buy an used Sony Professional with a microphone.
2) Ene will maybe make her job in connection with JKL University; a pro gradu work?
3) Ilpo will collect the list of all recorded material of Kola saami music.
4) Ilpo will get the articles mentioned in Rüütel’s (1980) booklist - for example the congress by the Estonian composers’ union, Tallin 1976.
Katrin has promised to send the invitation to the Global Music Centre - so that I can ask anyone to join the expedition when asking the visas from the Russian embassy. I have bought a Sony Professional in may, but haven´t got yet the original microphone, because it needs to be repaired at first.
I have bought also my own Mac LC 475 computer with Encore notating program and I´m busy when rehearsing to use Mac.
During May I have already transcribed the first phrases of the whole St Petersburg phonogram material in order to get to recognize the songs from their beginnings. The same work I have already done with the Lovozero group material recorded by me in Finland (Sodankylä, Nellimö and Inari radio) in 1986 (including Paula Konkova -mini-LP-record). The Petroskoi-material is under the work now.
I Kola Sámi musical tradition 1994.
In 1994 Tromsø museum (department of Tromsø University) got a grant from the Joint Committee of the Nordic Research Councils for the Humanities for the research work of Kolasami musical tradition during the period 1994-1996. The leader of the project is Ola Graff, the director of the sound archives in Tromsø Museum. The other members of the project group are Ilpo Saastamoinen (The Global Music Centre / Jyväskylä University; transcription of the recorded music), Jaakko Gauriloff (Scolt Sámi specialist), the Estonians Marju Sarv (especially Kola Sámi linguist) and Ene Viidang (music teacher) working as interpreters, translators, transcribers and making also other scientific and editorial work. At the same tame they are specialists concerning the all-round knowledge and the familiarity of the local circumstances and life conditions in Kola area. From the Kola Sámi side the contact person is Jekaterina Korkina, a Kola Sámi herself, who is making the basic transcription work of the original song texts and planing the program of the field expeditions.
The main purpose of the project is the recording, transcribing, analysing and possibly publishing of the field work material during the years to come. For this purpose the first field expedition to Kola was performed 3.-13.8.1994. The targets were Ylä-Tuloma (Verhnetulomskij), Padun, Tuloma, Loparskaja, Lovozero (Luujärvi), which is the centre of the Kola Sámi population and Olenegorsk.
In Ylä-Tuloma was recorded by us about 100 leu’dd-songs alone from Anfissa I. Gerassimova - almost the other half of the total amount of the material. She knew stylistic examples of almost all the other regions, although she never in her life had visited any other sami region.
Besides her we met Anna Moshnikova getting some extra leu’dd-songs. In Tuloma Anissia I. Moshnikova performed about ten - partly strongly syncopated - long epic leu’dds. The longest one was nine minutes.
In Loparskaja was recorded some luvv’t-songs performed by Marja N. Sharshina and Anastassia I. Terentjeva.
The last days we stayed in Lovozero recording luvv’t-songs performed mostly by Marina N. Sorvanova, Galina P. Kuzmina, Nikolai A. Kuzmin, Marja I. Zahharova, Sofja J. Jekimovitsh, Anna J. Novohatko, Elvira Galkina, Pavla Konkova, Anna P. Molodova and even Katerina Korkina herself. This part constitutes the second half of the recording collection.
When returning to Finland we made a visit to Anastassia O. Gerassimova in Padun, Ylä-Tuloma getting very remarkable additional group of leu’dd-songs to our tapes.
The final result of the expedition was 23 sixty minutes’ DAT tapes plus many extra takes by Sony prof. cassette recorder, in addition about 250 musical recordings (including all the versions and cuts of the songs) and besides some hours of cassette copies of the records taken by the local sami radio and Alexandra Antonova. The records will be filed in Tromsø Museum, The Global Music Centre, the Murmansk areal administration, Tallinn and finally -of course - in Lovozero for the Sámi people themselves. There is an aim to gather the copies of previously published articles and the recordings in Lovozero in order to facilitate the efforts in maintaining the Kola Sámi musical culture.
[> Ks. "Son vuäinn - lehdistö": "Tutkimusmatka Kuolaan 1994"]
Tromsøn yliopiston yhteydessä toimivan Tromsøn museon saaman yhteispohjoismaisen apurahan turvin käynnistyi 1994 kolmivuotinen projekti Kuolan saamelaismusiikin kartoittamiseksi.
Projektin norjalaisena johtajana toimii äänitearkiston johtaja Ola Graff. Suomalaista osapuolta edustaa Maailman musiikin keskus / Ilpo Saastamoinen, jonka tehtävänä on nuotintaa ja analysoida tutkimusmateriaali. Kuolan alueella projektin keskushenkilönä on Lovozerossa toimiva Katerina Korkina, joka samalla litteroi tekstejä. Virosta projektissa ovat mukana kielentutkija Marju Sarv sekä musiikinopettaja Ene Viidang. Molemmat osallistuvat tulkkaus- ja käännöstyön ohella tekstien/musiikin litterointiin sekä samalla edustavat tutkimusperinteen jatkuvuutta sekä paikallistuntemusta aikaisempien matkojensa kokemusten perusteella. Saamelaiskulttuurien vuorovaikutuksen kehittäjänä mukana on myös Suomen kolttasaamelainen Jaakko Gauriloff, joka on tähän mennessä Ilpo Saastamoisen kanssa vieraillut 1990 kaksi kertaa Kuolassa.
Projektin ensimmäinen kenttätyömatka suuntautui Kuolaan 3.-13.8.1994. Kohteina olivat Ylä-Tuloma, Padun, Tuloma, Loparskaja, Lovozero ja Olenegorsk. Ylä-Tulomassa äänitettiin noin 100 laulua (“leu’dd”, “luvv’t” etc.)Anfissa I. Gerassimovalta sekä jonkin verran Anna Moshnikovalta. Tulomassa tapasimme Anissia I. Moshnikovan (kymmenkunta pitkää laulua), Loparskajassa Marja N. Sharshinan ja Anastassia I. Terentjevan ja Lovozerossa Marina N. Sorvanovan, Galina P. Kuzminan, Nikolai A. Kuzminin, Marja I. Zahharovan, Sofja J. Jekimovitshin, Anna J. Novohatkon, Elvira Galkinan, Paula Konkovan sekä Anna P. Molodovan. Vielä paluumatkalla nauhoitettiin Padunan kylässä Anastassia O. Gerassimovan lauluja. Yhteensä matkalta kertyi noin 250 laulua - monista useita toisintoja tai katkelmia.
Vuoden 1995 aikana on tarkoitus litteroida ja nuotintaa ko. materiaali sekä ensi vaiheessa etsiä sopiva aineisto erityisesti kouluopetusta varten - siten että sillä olisi mahdollisesti käyttöä myös Suomen kolttasaamelaisten keskuudessa. Tutkimusmateriaali pyritään julkaisemaan tulevaisuudessa sekä kirjallisessa että - ainakin osittain - soivassa muodossa. Äänitetty materiaali tallennetaan ainakin Tromsøn museoon, Maailman musiikin keskukseen, Muurmanskiin (aluehallinnon kanssa tehtävän sopimuksen mukaisesti) sekä Lovozeroon saamelaisten omia tarpeita varten. Lovozeroon pyritään lisäksi keräämään kopioina myös aikaisemmin eestiläisten ja venäläisten toimesta äänitetty materiaali sekä lehti- ja kirja-artikkelien kokoelma saamelaisten musiikista Kuolan alueella.
Jo nyt voidaan sanoa, että -94 tehdyn kenttämatkan tulokset edustavat laajinta tähän asti kerättyä yhtenäistä kokoelmaa Kuolan saamelaisten musiikista. Mutta vasta jatkossa seuraava yhteistyö näyttää, toteutuuko projektin yksi päätarkoituksista, so. missä määrin tulokset tulevat auttamaan Kuolan saamelaisuuden elossapysymistä.
3.-13.8. Tromsøn yliopiston 4-vuotinen Kola Sámi Musical Tradition -projekti
- Ylä-Tuloma, Padun, Tuloma, Loparskaja, Lovozero, Olenegorsk
- yht. 23h. joissa n. 250 nuotinnettua lauluäänitettä (koltat ~ 150)
I Kenttätyömatka 3.8. - 13.8. 1994:
- Ylä-Tuloma, Padun, Tuloma, Loparskaja, Lovozero, Olenegorsk
4.8. Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimova, Ylä-Tuloma 40 leu´ddia
4.8. Zoja Mihhailovna Nossova 1 leu´dd/lavl
5.8. Anastassia Ossipovna Gerassimova – haastattelu
5.8. Anfissa I. Gerassimova, Ylä-Tuloma 27 leu´ddia
6.8. Anna Fominitshna Moshnikova , Padun 3 leu´ddia
7.8. Anfissa I. Gerassimova, Ylä-Tuloma, Turbobas 29 leu´ddia
7.8. Anissia Ivanovna Moshnikova, Tuloma 10 leu´ddia
13.8 Anastassia Ossipovna Gerassimova, Padun: 13 leu´ddia
1) Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimova, Ylä-Tuloma (noin 150 leuddia ja laulua)
67 + N:ot 71-109 (36) + 7 + 39 = yht. 149
(& Zoja Mihhailovna Nossova)
2) Anna F. Moshnikova, Padun (leuddeja)
N:ot 69-70 (= yht. 2)
3) Anastassia O. Gerassimova, Padun (leuddeja)
N:ot 120-135 (15) + N:ot 1-57 (75) + N:ot 40-66 (27) = yht. 117
4) Anissia I. Moshnikova, Tuloma (kymmenkunta pitkää leuddia)
N:ot 110-119 (10) + 7 = yht. 17
(yht. 123 leu´ddia, laulua)
9.8. Maria Nikolajevna Sharshina, Loparskie 8 luvvjtia
9.8. Anastassia Ilitshna Terentjeva, Loparskie 7 luvvjtia
9.8. Nikolai Vladimirovitsh Sharshin –haastattelu
10.8. Marina Nikolajevna Sorvanova, Lovozero 13 luvvjtia
10.8. Galina Pavlovna Kuzmina,Lovozero 24 luvvjtia
10.8. Nikolai Aleksandrovitsh Kuzmin,Lovozero 11 luvvjtia
11.8. Maria Ivanovna Zahharova, Lovozero (satu +) 18 luvvjtia
11.8. Sofia Jefimovna Jekimovitsh, Lovozero 5 lavl'ua
11.8. Anna Jefimovna Novohadko, Lovozero 5 lavl'ua
(yht. 91 luvvjtia, laulua)
Ylä-Tulomassa äänitettiin noin 100 laulua Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimovalta sekä jonkin verran Anna Moshnikovalta ja Zoja Mihailnovna Nossovalta 4.-7.8. välisenä aikana.
Äänitetty 23 kpl 60 min. DAT-kasetteja - Yht. ~ 250 lauluäänitettä.
Yhteensä matkalta kertyi noin 250 numeroitua äänitettä keskusteluineen. Yli 20 tunnin äänitemateriaalista peräti neljäsosa on musiikkia.
DAT-numerot viittaavat 1994-expedition perusnauhoihin N:o 1-23, jotka ovat kukin tunnin mittaisia. Jonkin verran lisänauhoitteita ja nauhakopioita tehtiin myös Sony WM D6C -nauhurilla, jolla äänitettiin myös varmuuskopiot paikan päällä
Patunan (Padun) kylässä vierailimme 5.8. Anastassia Ossipovna Gerassimovan kotona. Hän ei kuitenkaan sillä kertaa kyennyt laulamaan sairauden vuoksi, joten sovimme tapaamisesta paluumatkalla 13.8. Sen sijaan 6.8. nauhoitimme Anna Fomishna Moshnikovalta muutaman leu’ddin useina katkelmina.
Ylä-Tuloman jälkeen palasimme 7.8. takaisin Murmanskin suuntaan pysähtyen matkan varrella Tulomassa, jossa tapasimme Anissia Ivanovna Moshnikovan. Häneltä äänitimme kymmenkunta pitkää laulua. Määrä ei ollut suuri, mutta kestot olivat 3-9 minuuttia. Tunsimme löytäneemme aarteita, sillä laulaja osoittautui todella taitavaksi. Hänen lauluissaan improvisoinnilla tuntui olevan huomattavan suuri osuus.
DAT - XI/1). “Sirdi (=Sergei) kosjade lugu” löytyy LP-levyltä SP 02-0003 B-puolen alusta.
Vietettyämme täydellisen bensiinipulan vallassa olevassa Murmanskissa 8.8. yhden päivän jatkoimme 9.8.matkaa etelään ensimmäisenä pysähdyspaikkanamme Loparskajan kylä. Loparskajassa äänitimme Marja Nikolajevna Sharshinan ja Anastassia Iljinitshna Terentjevan luvv’teja 15 numeroa.
Saavuttuamme Lovozeroon 10.8. jakauduimme kahteen ryhmään, joista toinen meni tapaamaan Marina Nikolajevna Sorvanovaa. Tallenteita kertyikin 15 kpl, joiden mukana oli eräs tämän alueen “klassikkomelodioista” (Etelätuuli, Soajv pingk). Sielukas esitys oli eräs matkan helmistä (DAT 15:7, vrt. myös DAT 16:1-3-4-5 ja 20:7-8).
Toinen ryhmä vieraili samanaikaisesti Galina Pavlovna Kuzminan ja hänen aikamiespoikansa Nikolai Aleksandrovitsh Kuzminin kotona, jonne toinenkin ryhmä myöhemmin saapui. Yhteensä näiltä kahdelta saatiin tallennettua noin 35 numeroa - joukossa eri versioita samoista luvv’teista. Nikolai jäikin ainoaksi miespuoliseksi luvv´tien esittäjäksi, jota saimme tallennettua nauhalle.
Seuraavana päivänä 11.8. nauhoitimme Maria Ivanovna Zahharovalta - ihanan matalaääniseltä mummolta - noin 25 numeroa - toistot mukaan laskien. Hänen lisäksi saimme Sofja Jefimovna Jekimovitshilta ja Anna Jefimovna Novohatkolta yhteensä kymmenkunta äänitettä.
Saman päivän iltana pidimme vielä paikallisessa kulttuuritalossa illanistujaiset, joihin oli kerääntynyt parikymmentä vanhaa ja nuorta naista - myös Oijar-ryhmän jäseniä - sekä paikallinen radio ja TV. Omien esitystemme ohessa taltioimme vielä yhteensä kymmenkunta numeroa esiintyjinä jo LP-levyiltä tuttu Pavla Konkova, Katerina Korkina sekä Elvira Galkina, joka esitti saamenkielisiä venäläisvaikutteisia sävellyksiään kitaralla säestäen.
Anna Prokopjevna Molodova esitti luvv’tin, jota yhdessä paikalla olleiden Oijar -tanssi- ja lauluryhmän jäsenten kanssa koetimme sovittaa sekajakoisen rytmikaavan muotoon (DAT 21:8-9).
Paluumatkalla Murmanskiin 12.8. tapasimme vielä Olenegorskissa Iraida Vladimirovna Vinogradovan, joka lupautui litteroimaan turjansaamelaisen äitinsä Klavdia Grigorjevna Matrjohhinalta virolaisten Mikk ja Marju Sarvin sekä Ene Viidangin 1990 tallentamia äänitteitä. Iraida itse ei ole koskaan laulanut luvv’teja. Pidimme kuitenkin tärkeänä sisällyttää tutkimuksemme piiriin myös turjansaamelaista laulua, vaikkakaan tällä matkalla emme sitä onnistuneet äänittämään.
Murmanskissa yövyttyämme lähdimme 13.8. kohti Suomen rajaa. Sopimuksen mukaan vierailimme uudestaan Anastassia Ossipovna Gerassimovan kotona Patunan kylässä, joka sijaitsee aivan Ylä-Tuloman kyljessä. Hän oli nyt huomattavasti virkeämmässä kunnossa. Yhteensä tuloksena oli parikymmentä leu’ddia eri versioineen.
Kola Saami Musical Tradition II
Field expedition in Kola 6.9. - 12.9.1995
II Kenttätyömatka 6.9. - 12.9. 1995 (18 DAT-kasettia):
6.9 Anastassia Ossipovna Gerassimova, Padun: 77 leuddia
6.9 Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimova, Ylä-Tuloma: 7 leuddia
+ KK: 1 luvv’t
8.9. Ljubov Ivanovna Dmitrijeva (Pelkina), Teriberka: 30 luvvjtia
10.9 Marina Nikolajevna Sorvanova, Lovozero: 11 luvvjtia
11.9. Nikolai Kuzmin, Lovozero: 9 luvvjtia
11.9. Anna Aleksejevna Fefelova, Lovozero: 15 luvvjtia
12.9. Maria Prokopjevna Sergina, Joona (Iona): 15 leuddia
12.9. Matrjona Ivanovna Sotkajärvi, Joona: 4 leuddia Yht. 170
IS (to Ola Graff) - Spring 1996:
Field work in Sevettijärvi 7.4. - 13.4. 1996
After arriving Kirakkajärvi (to east from Sevettijärvi) - Helena Semenoff’s home - in the evening 8.4. it turned quite soon out, that all the saami song texts from Kola area should be written in ”western” alphabets. The Scolts cannot read the texts written with the Cyrillic alphabet. The second point of view is that everything sung in Scolt saami should be written with the official Scolt saami orthography, because in the Kola area even the Kildin Saami orthography is looking its own style of writing.
The second point is that the discussions and songs recorded in the Ylä-Tuloma, Tuloma and Joona villages were performed more in Scolt saami than in Kildin saami. So it is quite natural that the songs from those villages should be transcribed - not by a Kildin saami but - by the Scolt saamis themselves. This must happen in the co-operative way with the original singers. They have to have a chance to check out , if everything is transcribed correctly. (About two years ago I mentioned that the songs should be written in the co-operation with the singers themselves, but it is clear that Katerina has not done so.
The consequences are a huge amount of conflicting and contradictory interpretations in translations: From the first four cassettes I’ve found about forty (40!) totally different interpretations concerning the ideas of the sentences plus something like fifty (50!) differences in the meanings of the words - without totally destroying the meaning of the sentences!!!
On my opinion - only a few of the differences are in the English translations, because Ene and me have discussed about the material when Ene has done her translations. The main problem lies in the translations from Scolt saami to Kildin - way of understanding the language.
Instead of just listening the songs and trying only recognise some melodies known by the Finnish Scolts (as You and me had planned) we decided to begin to translate the song texts from Upper-Tuloma sung by Anfissa Gerassimova. On the 9.4. we asked Satu Mosnikoff to come to us to discuss about the possibilities of writing down all the Scolt saami songs from the Kola -94 expedition. She is - as a teacher - one of the best specialists in Scolt saami orthography after Pekka Sammallahti. The old ladies understand what is sung on the cassettes, but they themselves cannot write it down correctly. So - during that week in Sevettijärvi we didn’t write the texts in Scolt saami but just translated orally what was sung on the first four tapes.
We decided that Satu, Domna and Helena will begin the true transcribing of the Upper-Tuloma, Tuloma and - later - the -95 -expedition (Joona) song texts as the co-operative work. It will be absolute prerequisite in order to get scientific results. It is possible that there will be - not only one but - two or even more ”right” translations or interpretations, which makes the results even more interesting, because the language trends to be in a symbolic form awakening associations etc.
My proposal to the women was that they’ll begin the translation straight into Finnish and Satu will write the original Scolt saami transcriptions which I can later use with the musical notes. We will preserve Katerina’s versions in order to make comparisons. Anfissa Gerassimova should make a visit in Finland or the Scolt women should visit Upper Tuloma in order to check the results wit Anfissa.
...In this case I would prefer that the women will translate only those parts from the rest which carry some special interest for our general understanding. Anyway they will listen at least once everything what is spoken on the tapes.
Besides of that it became evident that Jaakko has really a pretty good understanding of the Scolt saami. His help in Sevettijärvi was quite remarkable and he has a big interest in listening also the discussions. Because he somehow has also a part of the copyright of the tapes, I promised to copy everything for him. Also he himself can check out if there is something important in the Scolt saami - discussions.
Anyway - the task is too big for Katerina alone. It is better let her to concentrate in the Kildin saami material. I want You to confirm this, so Ene could call to Katerina and tell about the new situation. So she may continue her work with the Kildin saami material; Loparskaja, Lovozero and Teriberka. Ene will translate the discussions in Russian and the Scolts themselves will translate and transcribe the songs from Upper Tuloma, Tuloma and Joona - beginning with the -94 material. I’ll copy the -95 cassettes after getting the -94 translations from them.
Shortly said - the situation is that I have transcribed on the computer everything which is possible. It means all the music with the text (with Cyrillic alphabets) from the cassettes 1-4. N:o 4 was written without hyphens so I just wrote them - with eyes closed... It’s no use to put the notes to the computer without the words because the words have an influence to the structures of the music and the repairing work afterwards is undoubtedly too complicated with my notating program (changing the meters etc.). Already now I wonder what to do with the Cyrillic texts if they are really wrongly understood. Should I leave them just there and write later the ”official” Scolt saami texts just onto the second row - under the first Cyrillic texts. Anyway - we must give to Anfissa Gerassimova a chance to check them before making final decisions.
After I have made the first ”hand”-transcriptions from the -95 -material (I haven’t done it yet) I have just to wait for the texts. So I cannot wait them from Katerina.
So - concerning us - the names of the translators should be mentioned clearly in the final publications...
Today’s situation is such what nobody could know beforehand. Nobody knew that we are gonna to get from Kola actually more Scolt saami leu’dds than Kildin or Ter saami luvv'ts. Therefore everybody thought that Katerina is enough for us. But she cannot do it alone - even she had ten years time to do it. Everybody understand that total amount of -let’s hope - 500 songs is more than any of us had thought. This project demands now the continuation, which will concentrate in editing the music and texts. It means at least a project of two years without extra expeditions - only meetings of the singers and transcribers checking and correcting the texts.
The difference in the pronunciation of quite many words is so small, that I couldn’t even remark it. For us the words ”cuckoo” (käki) and ”stone” (kivi) are quite different but in Scolt saami they are actually almost the same - but not exactly. So - for Katerina - a village is like a cuckoo when for the Scolt women the village lies on the stony mountain side...
It took about one hour for every leu’dd to get unanimous results.
Finally some comments:
I think in generally that the discussions are not so important to translate. It could be enough to translate the essence of the discussions, the contents. It will make the whole thing easier and shorter to write. But to speak Saami doesn’t mean that it is not important. So those speeches should be checked.
The next Kola expedition; I have heard that there will be some festivities in Lovozero during the week end 6.-7.7. Some Scolts have plans to visit there. We should also.
The complete list of recorded Kola material is actually out of question - so well done as You have asked. Maybe the best thing to do at first is to send to You copies of those lists I have got myself. The only valid ones are actually Marju-Mikk-Ene -expeditions 89-90, Jaan Sarv -collection (Estonian radio) and partly the St. Petersburg wax-cylinder -collection written by Jaan Sarv. Most other collections (Petroskoi) are not documented clearly enough. There seems to be differences in comparison with the auditory material which I have got. All the other collections are not documented in the written form. So one has to understand language, have the field work diary and so on.
For example Travina’s material - we don’t even know yet, are the originals in Moscow or forgotten somewhere in Petroskoi. The only copies I have got from Katerina are just some cassettes without even the first written detail. One luvv’t from the book I have found by chance with the help of Jarkko Niemi.
Anyway I have transcribed -at least partly - at least two hundred of them but without even one text. So they are partially worthless. I can only make comparisons.
The task is not impossible but will demand approximately more than one month’s time, if You need the lengths of the recordings (100 cassettes without a grey idea are some of them copies of each other or not). Anyway I think the different possibilities what to do with them. My manuscripts (>200 songs?) can naturally be copied - just for sure as duplicates.But it is quite normal that I would like to make them at first as final as possible before giving them out. Let’s talk about this project in the summer. Dialects are quite difficult to recognise if it’s not mentioned by any linguist, because the dialect does not need to be the same as the living place of the informant.
Ene will think about the possibility to write the translations of the [Kola Sami music] articles during the next summer if she’ll get time besides of the project work. She reminded me that she has made the basic work in her own time (not get paid). On my opinion it could be a special number in an ethnomusic magazine or in some publication series. You should discuss about that with Ene. Original articles I have collected (with the help of Ene) as a part of my job in the project - most of them from Tarto univ. and Helsinki univ. libraries.
What to do with the Dictaphone? It was broken during the work last week in Sevettijärvi after one year’s use. If you push ”play”, it works in the 2/3 -speed and if you push ”stop”, it begins going ”fast forward”. You have to put the electric off, then it stops. It surely doesn’t come because of any misuse. So must I pay the reparation myself or what to do? One year is too short a time for an apparatus even in professional use. I don’t know yet if it is possible to repair it in Jyväskylä and how much it will cost. And we both need it regularly in this work.
There is an old problem - Sony cassette copies of -94 material which were not on DAT. The C-dolby has not been there - or it has been a wrong model - when the copies are made. The sound is unclear and parts of the tapes are difficult to listen to. You should send the original C-cassettes to me that I can make new copies with the same Sony with which the originals are recorded.
Olenegorsk 1. - 3.6.1996 - Travel account
The conference ’Music Kolsky Saami’ was held in Olenegorsk 1.-2.-6.1996 organised by the city of Olenegorsk and the Association of Kolsky Saami. My part was to bring there Ola Graff’s paper concerning the project Kola saami musical tradition and to read my own paper about the musical terminology of Eastern saamis. The papers were read on the 2.6.
On Saturday 1.6. the conference began with a demonstration in the open air. The evening concert included saami music and dance performances: Among others there were the Oijar group and the children group Oira from Lovozero, a female vocal group from Revda, the luvv’t singers Maria Zahharova, M. Sorvanova, Pavla Konkova and from Olenegorsk Anfissa Maksimovna Agela (42) - a new Kildin luvv’t singer. From Gremiha there were no people at all.
After the concert there was organised a literary evening, where some saami poems were read besides of the discussion.
During the discussions with Iraida Vladimirovna it came out, that the brother of - the Lovozero Saami radio reporter and author - Aleksandra Antonova is living in Olenegorsk. His name is Georgi Andrevitsh Antonov. He used to sing luvvts, but now he is ill. Anyway he possibly could perform some luvvts, if we’ll find a right way.
Iraida knew also some Ter-saami tradition keepers (not singers): Nina Nikolajevna Mironova from Umba and from Krashnozelje Sofia Nasarovna (?) and her(?) brother Ivan Nikolavitsh Danilov. They are (?) relatives of Iraida’s mother Klavdia Matrjohhina. The name Danilov is found on some tape recordings from the 1930’s. There were also the name Igor Pavlovitsh Danilov (is living), whose father was called Pavel Fomitsh Danilov. Actually the name on the St. Petersburg tapes from 1937 is Foma Ivanovitsh Danilov (63). He should have been the grandfather of I.P.Danilov. The tapes of FID should be played to him!
A young boy called Basil Rudyaev was translating to me during the days in Olenegorsk. He made it somehow well - even the ad lib translating of my paper, about which we couldn’t speak so much beforehand.
On the second day the meeting was addressed - among others - the president of the Kola Saami Association Nina Afanasjeva, Katrin Korkina, a woman from Khanty-Mansinsk, Katrin Korkina and Eudokia (Yevdokya) Valentinovna Shevtsova, the culture secretary (= Leader of Centre of Culture) of Olenegorsk. She introduced us to the city major on the last morning 3.6. before my leaving for Finland.
Katrin Korkina gave me the transcriptions of eight first 94-cassettes, which she told were been checked together with Anfissa Gerassimova! I have sent the copies (in Scolt and Russian) to Satu Mosnikoff in Sevettijärvi for their own work writing the texts in Scolt Saami.
We will meet Katrin in Verhne-Tulomsk in the evening 26.6.96. Katrin also pointed out, that we should to get the licence in our visas to cross the border 9.7.96 via Jona in the place, whose Finnish name is ’Kelloselkä’. For the Finnish officials the Russian permission is enough. I enclose my double visa to get the extra place names into it - and possibly the permission to use the car.
Kola Saami musical tradition
The third field expedition 6.7. - 16.7. 1996 in Kola
List of the recorded material (90 min. DAT-cassettes):
III Kenttätyömatka 6.7. - 16.7. 1996 (11 DAT-kasettia ~ á 90 min.):
7.7. Ylä-Tuloma, Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimova: 58 leuddia
7.7. Padun (Patuna), Anastassia Ossipovna Gerassimova: 26 leuddia
8.7. Tuloma, Anissia Ivanovna Moshnikova: 7 leuddia
9.7. Murmansk (money exchange + Front-line-office
10.7. Murmansk (Alueellinen kulttuurikomitea - Bogdanov)
11.7. Loparskaja - Olenegorsk
12.7. Lovozero: Marina Nikolajevna Sorvanova: 8+2 luvvjtia
Apollinaria Dmitrijevna Danilova: 2+3 luvvjtia
Iraida Vladimirovna Vinogradova: 6 laulua (?)
13.7. Lovozero, Maria Zahharova: 14 luvvjtia
Anna Molodova: 3 luvvjtia
14.7. Lovozero Fish-festivals - only video document
15.7. Lovozero: Anissia Antonovna Jurjeva: 5 luvvjtia
Afanasja Aleksejevna Danilova: 12 (+6) luvvjtia
Anna Aleksejevna Fefelova (Galkina): 7+3 luvvjtia
15.7. Revda: Sofia Jakimovitsh: 11(+5) luvvjtia (?)
Anna Novohatko: 4 (+5) luvvjtia
Jekaterina Korkina: 8 luvvjtia Yht. ~ 185
1994: 250 + 1995: 169 + 1996: 186 = ~ 605 songs (including variations)
[+1997 5 luvvjtia]
The travel to Teriberka was in vain, because of the sickness of Ljubov Ivanovna Dmitrijeva. The same happened in Loparskaja - the reindeer herder-man wasn’t at home. About Joona situation we heard on the 14.7 Sunday that the women have been ill, but it was too late to change the travel plan, because we had worked actually two days in Murmansk and Lovozero trying to be sure, that we may drive over the border in Salla. The fish-festivals are only on the video tape (with slow speed because of the lack of film). The sound in the open air was too bad for the recording, but we could tie meeting times for the next day in Lovozero and Revda (about 30 km from Lovozero).
Kola Sámi Musical Tradition
(IV) Expedition to Verhne-Tulomsk and Tulomsk
(19.7.)20.07. - 28.07.(29.7.) 1997
Participants: Ilpo Saastamoinen, Helena Semenoff (HS) and Domna Fofonoff (DF)
Anastassia O. Gerassimova (AOG)
Anissia Ivanovna Moshnikova (AIM)
Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimova (AIG)
Zoja Nossova (ZN) - helping in the translation
The purpose of this expedition was to check and write down the leu’dd texts sung 1994-1996 by two Scolt Sámi women, AOG and AIM.
(Anfissa Gerassimova’s leu’dds (1994-1996) were translated and checked (but not yet transcribed to us) during her visit in Sevettijärvi together with Zoja Nossova in the spring 1997. )
Because of the lack of the skill to speak any Russian we had with us most of the time ZN or AIG, who both speak fluently Scolt Sámi language. They helped us in finding the right translations for some Russian words included in the leu’dd texts.
My wife Ene Viidang was supposed to come along as an interpreter from Russia to Finnish, but she couldn’t come because of reasons concerning the health of the children. We started from Ivalo on the 20.7.97 and arrived to Verhne-Tulomsk late on the same evening.
The working program:
21.7. 97 Working with AOG and AIG in Padun. We began to treat AOG’s material from 1994, because AIG’s leu’dds were transcribed already in the spring 1997.
Our method was translating the leu’dd texts into Finnish by HS and DF - sentence by sentence. I recorded the discussion and wrote the Finnish interpretation at the same time. I didn’t use video camera.
22.7. A short meeting with AIM in Tuloma. The whole day was spent with ZN in Murmansk declaring the official registration, because we were not supposed to spend nights in any hotel. We stayed the whole period at ZN’s apartment.
The official invitation (for the visas) was sent by the Kola Sámi Society (Assosiatsij Kolskij Saamov). We got it with the help of Leif Rantala (Rovaniemi University). Because of the lack of the time we didn’t use the normal channel - the co-operative committee in Murmansk, which is our official partner. The another reason was, that Ekaterina Korkina was not asked to join us. She doesn’t speak fluently Scolt Sámi language.
The registration rules were changed in March 1997. The inviting organisation should do the registration process on behalf of us, but the head of the Kola Sámi Association - Nina Afanasjeva - gave us the advice to do it ourselves.
It turned out, that we had to visit five different offices and the process lasted the whole day. The final registration happened in an office in Kola town near by Murmansk - on the way back to V. - Tulomsk. The receipt of the payment was given to me on the following day in V. - Tulomsk, because in the moment of paying the other office was already closed - about 17.15 o’clock..
It was too late to do any transcription work on that evening. We just went to tell this to AOG and decided to come to her home in Padun on the following morning.
23.7. Working with AOG and AIG in Padun. We worked out the whole material of 1994 (Which was already in literary form written by Satu Mosnikoff) and begun to work with the material from 1995.
24.7. Working with AOG and AIG in Padun. In the evening we were ready with the first 22 leu’dds from AOG’s 1995 -material. AIG sang four new leu’dds and one longer version of an earlier recorded leu’dd.
25.7. We had to visit Murmansk once more with ZN in order to buy C-cassettes and batteries. My DAT-tapes were already full (the rest of 1996’s expedition) and I had to record the rest with two Sony Professional C-cassette recorders (with B-dolby).
It was important to get two copies at the same time, because I gave the copies of the whole material later to Helena and Domna as the working material for Satu Mosnikoff. She will transcribe the results in the literary form (Scolt Sámi) in Sevettijärvi.
The afternoon and the evening we worked in Tuloma with AIM transcribing and translating her 1994 -material.
26.7. Working with ZN and AIM. After a very long day we were ready with AIM’s 1996 -material.
27.7. Working with AOG in Padun. We transcribed and translated her 1996 -material.
28.7. Because HS had reserved her medicine for diabetes only until 28.7., we couldn’t stay any extra days. So we had to leave Verhne-Tulomsk before noon. We arrived to Ivalo three o’clock pm. on the same day. I bought the buss tickets for them to Sevettijärvi and the buss took off 15.15.
I spent the following night in Kajaani - just like in the beginning of the expedition.
29.7. 97 My returning to Jyväskylä in the evening.
IV Kenttätyömatka Ylä-Tulomaan ja Tulomaan 19.7. - 29.7.1997:
Osanottajat: Ilpo Saastamoinen, Helena Semenoff, Domna Fofonoff sekä Zoja Nossova (ZN).
Haastateltavat: Anastassia O. Gerassimova (AOG), Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimova (Ylä-Tuloma) (AIG), Anissia Ivanovna Moshnikova (Tuloma) (AIM).
24.7. Ylä-Tuloma, Anfissa Ivanovna Gerassimova: 5 leu´ddia
Matkan tarkoituksena oli jo laulettujen tekstien litterointi, joten uusia lauluäänityksiä ei pyritty erityisesti keräämään.
20.7.97 Ylä-Tuuloma Zoja Nosova (ZN) (yöpymispaikkamme)
Anfisa I. Gerasimova (AIG) & Anastasija O. Gerasimova (AOG)
22.7. Zoja Nosova (ZN)
23.7. (AIG) & (AOG)
24.7. (AIG) & (AOG)
25.7. Tuuloma (ZN) & Anisija I. Moshnikova (AIM)
26.7. (ZN) & Anisija I. Moshnikova (AIM)
27.7. Patuna (AOG) & (ZN)
28.7 Zoja Nosova (ZN)
Total amount(incl. variations):
1994: 250 + 1995: 169 + 1996: 186 + 1997: 5
= 610 leu´dds/luvvjts/songs (lavl)
The results and conclusions of the expedition:
Because the texts sung by AIG were checked earlier this year, all the Scolt Sámi material is now checked orally except:
1) the leu’dds by AOG 1995 (numbers 23-80)
2) the new leu’dds sung by AIG 1997. These five leu’dds were discussed straight after the singing. So they don’t need any later discussion.
3) The texts sung in Joona 1995. They are a question mark, because those two women are not in the good health.
Generally - we were satisfied with the results. The rest of the work depends on, how fast I can write the Finnish versions and send them to Satu Mosnikoff and how fast she can write the original Scolt Sámi texts. Ene is also waiting for the checked Finnish translations of the whole AIG’s texts in order to translate them into English. We have not yet got that material from Satu in literary or recorded form.
The second problem is the 1995 -material by AOG, because there are leu’dds, which are totally new - without versions from 1994 or 1996. So they should be checked personally in co-operation with AOG. One journey more (about 2-3 days?) to Verhne -Tulomsk could be necessary, because AOG doesn’t come to Finland???
Ene should try to declare a lot of Russian words in leu’dds and send the list to Satu Mosnikoff. She should think about how to write those loan words in Scolt Sámi form.
What to do with original tapes? The amount is something near by 50 hours. The languages are only Scolt Sámi and Finnish. Some cuts are only on the original tapes and some cuts only on the copy tapes (now in Sevettijärvi), because there were different lengths in the tapes and I didn’t remark the stopping of the tapes every time.
The situation in the autumn 1997:
Satu Mosnikoff has promised to read the Finnish translations of the texts sung by Anfissa Gerassimova (1994 material) on to the tape so, that Ene Viidang can translate them into English. She will make this during the rest of the year. Within the same period she will transcribe the rest of AG:s material so that I can write the final musical transcriptions with the text.
Ene Viidang will make the transcriptions of all the discussions 1994-1996 except the discussions in Sámi languages. Until now we don’t know, who will make this, even there are some important parts concerning the songs and music terminology.
Ilpo Saastamoinen will make the rest of AG:s transcriptions in the final form immediately after getting the texts from Satu Mosnikoff. The rest of the 1994-96 material will be left to Tromsø as manuscripts without texts and any kind of analyses in the beginning of 1998.
Concerning Jekaterina Korkina’s and Iraida Vinogradova’s part there is no sure knowledge. What the project has got already is of very small amount of text.
It seems that the project can get Anfissa Gerassimova’s part and possibly also the part of two other Scolt women (from 1994 expedition) into the final form before February 1998.
Itäsaamelainen lähde- ja vertailuaineisto (omat äänitekokoelmat):
1987 Domna Sanilan ja Helena Semenoffin kolttaäänityksiä
1988 4.-8.9. Kolttaäänitysmatka Jaakko Gauriloffin kanssa:
5.9. Kevätjärvi ja Nellimö,
6.9. Sevettijärvi (eläkeläisten tapaaminen, nauhojen kuuntelu),
7.9. Kirakkajärvi (Helena Semenoff ja Vassi Semenoja) (9h.)
10.11. (II matka) Kevätjärvi, 11.11. Kirakkajärvi, 12.11. Kevätjärvi (3h.)
1989 17.-22.4. kolttaäänitysmatka J. Gauriloffin kanssa:
19.4. Kirakkajärvi, Sevettijärvi (Semenoja, Semenoff, Satu Mosnikoff)
20.4. Nellimö (Romman ja Teppana Titov)
21.4. Kevätjärvi (Irja Jefremoff) (3h.)
1.-2.12 J. Gauriloff ja IS äänitysmatkalla Sevettijärvellä ja Nellimissä
1990 17.-24.1. Saamelaismusiikin äänityksiä Murmansk, Lovozero (I matka)
(Jaakko Gauriloff, Mikk Sarv)
10.-15.10 II matka Lovozeroon (Jaakko Gauriloff + Suomen koltat)
3.-13.8. Tromsøn yliopiston 4-vuotinen Kola Sámi Musical Tradition -projekti
- Ylä-Tuloma, Padun, Tuloma, Loparskaja, Lovozero, Olenegorsk
- yht. 23h. joissa n. 250 nuotinnettua lauluäänitettä
5.-14.9 Kola Sámi Musical Tradition -expeditio Kuolaan (170 laulua)
- Ylä-Tuloma, Padun, Teriberka, Lovozero, Joona
6.-16.7. Kola Sámi Musical Tradition -expeditio Kuolaan (äänitetty186 laulua)
- Ylä-Tuloma, Padun, Tuloma, Teriberka (ei ään.), Lovozero, Revda
7.-13.4. Kolttaäänitteiden tekstilitterointien tarkistusmatka Sevettijärvelle
(H. Semenoff, Domna Fofanoff, Satu Mosnikoff)
19.-29.7. matka Kuolan kolttien luo (Tuloma ja Ylä-Tuloma) laulutekstien litterointien tarkistusta varten. Mukana Helena Semenoff ja Domna Fofanoff.
Tromsøn museo, Maailman Musiikin Keskus, Helsinki: Kola Sámi Musical Tradition -projektin nauhoitemäärä ajalta 1994-1997 on noin 600 äänitettä.
Tutkimuksen käytössä oleva vertailumateriaali:
1) T.I. Itkonen: Kolttaleu´ddit v:lta 1913 (vahalieriöt) (~ 1 h)
2) Armas Launis: Kolttaleu´ddit v:lta 1922 (vahalieriöt)
+ 172 nuotinnosta, joiden tekstien tarkistukset 1989 (Helena Semenoff, Vassi Semenoja)
3) A.O. Väisänen: Kolttaleu´ddit v:lta 1926 (vahalieriöt) (~ 2,5 h)
+ nuotinnokset (lieriöt 1-49)
4) Erkki Ala-Könnin yleisradiolle keräämä äänitemateriaali vlta 1961
5) ULMA -kokoelma Uppsala (Israel Ruong): Kolttaleu´ddit v:lta 1964
6) Heikki Laitinen: Kolttaleu´ddit v:lta 1973 (~ 15 h)
7) Satu Mosnikoffin kolttaäänitykset 1970- (~ 15 h)
8) Irja Jefremoffin kolttaäänitykset 1974-78 (~ 4,5 h)
Muita käytössä olevia vertailuäänitteitä (Kuolansaamelaiset):
1) Jaan Sarv - Igor Bogdanov / Radio Tallinn 1977. (167 äänitettä)
2) Margo Kõlar - Kerstin Söödor (lpT) 1988 (~ 13 h)
3) Mikk ja Marju Sarv, Ene Viidang 1989-90 (lpT ja lpKld. luvv´teja (>150 äänitettä)
4) Pietarissa Venäjän tiedeakatemian kansatieteellisen instituutin Pietarin osaston äänitearkistossa (Hippius-Evald -kokoelmat 1928-37)
5) Herzen-instituutti: (Terjoshkin-kokoelma 1982-83)
6) Petroskoi: kielen ja kirjallisuuden instituutti: (Kert-Zaikov kokoelmat 1960-1975)
7) Lovozero: (Katrin Korkinan, Alexandra Antonovan ym:n yksityiskokoelmat) (~ 10h)
8) SKS, Helsinki: Tutkimusryhmä Minna-Riikka Järvinen - Sampsa Cairenius - Marju Sarv - Pentti Leppäaho - Kuolansaamel. kokoelma 18.8. - 22.8 1994 Revdassa ja Luujärvellä.