2007-17 Fenno-Ugric "Kalevala-type" rune melodies


Muzykaljnaya vselennaya Juriya Šejkina, "Yuri Sheikin's Musical Universe"

Yakutsk 2017, ss. 145-158 - toim. Oksana Dobzhanskaya

Muzykaljnaja vselennaja Jurija Šejkina (Yuri Sheikin's Musical Universe)

Ministerstvo obrazovanija i nauki Rossijskoj Federatsii Arktitšeskij gosudarstvennyj institut kuljtury i iskusstv

Muzykaljnaja vselennaja Jurija Šejkina (k 50-letiju nautšnoj dejateljnosti)

Sbornik statej, Jakutsk 2017


17.5.2017 Artikkeli ilmestyi Yuri Sheikinin juhlakirjassa keväällä 2017 Jakutiassa.




Muzykaljnaja vselennaja Jurija Šejkina (Yuri Sheikin's Musical Universe)

Ministerstvo obrazovanija i nauki Rossijskoj Federatsii Arktitšeskij gosudarstvennyj institut kuljtury i iskusstv

Muzykaljnaja vselennaja Jurija Šejkina

(k 50-letiju nautšnoj dejateljnosti)

Sbornik statej

Jakutsk 2017


Sisällys (engl. Contents):

S.S. Ignatyeva. To a reader............................................................ 3

Foreword....................................................................................................... (4-)5

"...Etnomusykolog, kompozitor i muzykant iz Finljandii I. Saastomojnen analiziruet rasprostranenie meloditšeskogo tipa napevov "Kalevala" sredi narodov Evropy i Azii..."


Section I Memories and reflections

T.I. Ignatieva. Expedition in Northern Asia of a lifetime............ 6

V.S. Nikiforova. The Musical Universe by Yuri Sheykin............... 16

O.E. Dobzhanskaya. Expedition to the Taimyr (August 1989)............. 30

O.V. Vasilenko. The study of the Khanty folk music in the light                                       

             of scientific school by Yu.I. Sheykin .............................................. 37

C. Ode. For the Anniversary of Yuri Illyich Sheykin....... 42

V.E. Dyakonova, I.A. Dyakonova, K.V. Struchkova.

About the expedition in a Gornyj district, Yakutia ........................... 43

 L.I. Kardashevskaya. About of Yu.I. Sheykin's textbook and lectures.. 48                                


Section II Studies and Materials                    

G.E. Soldatova. About of pitch structure of Mansi's ritual chants 5l

O.E. Dobzhanskaya. The histoty of the study of musical culture                                 

             of the Samoyed peoples.................................................................. 71         

V.E. Dyakonova. Phonoinstruments in the collections of the                                      

             Olenek historical-ethnographic Museum of the North peoples...... 94                                     

O.V. Vasilenko. Ritual genres of the winter calendar of Ukraine                                

             in the historical aspect of interaction between the folk traditions                              

             and composers music .................................................................... 101       


L.I. Kardashevskaya. Musical attributes of Evenki shaman ritual....... 114

V.L. Klaus. Telengits new-drums (field materials from Cocoria                                   

             village Kosh-Agach district of the Altai Republic, 2005)............. 120                              Z.I. Ivanova-Unarova. Fragments from the field diary of                                          

             V.I. Jochelson 1896........................................................................ 131

V.A. Chusovskaya. Toyuk in the space of Olonkho theater ............. 140 

I. Saastamoinen. "Kalevala-type" rune melodies - Fenno-Ugric? 145 

C. Ode, T.I. Ignatieva. Traditional singing of the Yukaghirs                                           

             (from the speech at the University of Amsterdam, l3 Dec 20l3)... 158                                          

T. Leisiö. The Hornpipe in Finland ................................... 163 


Publications by Yu. I. Sheykin.................................................................... 171 



p. 145

Ilpo Saastamojnen

muzykant, kompozitor, lizenziat filosofii (muzykaljnoe iskusstvo), etnomuzykoved, predsedatelj Global Music Centre (Heljsinki 1990-2010)





"The regularity and settledness of the grammar of these languages - the Finnic and the Tamulic [IS: = Tamil] - bear witness to an early literary cultivation; of which in India nothing remains but tradition, owing to Brahmanic encroachment, while in the fens of Finland oral tradition has preserved up to our own time the songs of Wäinämöinen, and of his sacred home, Kalevala."

Carl Bunsen. Outlines of the Philosophy of Universal History II, London 1854, p.19


The Finnish national epos constructed by Elias Lönnrot (1839 & 1845) is called "Kalevala". The tradition of singing rune melodies died actually one hundred years ago. There is no continuity of living Kalevala-traditions in the form of rituals. During the last 100 years of Finnish cultural history there has been made a lot of theatre-, opera-, musical and other versions of this subject (Sibelius etc.), but all of them are not based on any living tradition.

Therefore I am going to concentrate on the other features of Kalevala - especially the musical styles of Kalevala rune melodies - this time looking from the global point of view. I will show, how vast areas this melodic type has reached, and in which connections it is performed. In this sense, the Kalevala melodic type is used in the Bear Feast rituals among the Mansis (Woguls), a Fenno-Ugric tribe to the South and East from the Ural mountains in Russia. 

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Surprisingly, the same melodic type is to be found among the Manas-Epos melodies of Kirghizes of Afghanistan, in the shamanistic curing rituals of Cuna Indians on the San Blas islands (on the Atlantic coast of Panama and Costa Rica), in some areas of the Pacific Ocean, but also even in the songs of North African nomad tribes, the prayer calls from the minaret towers in Serbia, and finally, also in some areas of Iranian folk music tradition. Everything hints to the seeming possibility of a tradition of uncountable age.

On the other hand, prof. Timo Leisiö (Finland) has found the western route of this melodic type to the Scandinavian countries - the French troubadour romances of the 12th and 13th century. Did this melodic type come also from the South to Europe?

There are not many written articles on this subject focusing to music (Not to forget the later articles by Heikki Laitinen, Anneli Asplund, Ingrid Rüütel, Urve Lippus etc.). One of the first - after Finnish  Ilmari Krohn (Melodien der Permier, SUST LVIII, 1928) and Armas Launis ["Über... estnisch-finnischen Runenmelodien 1913] - was written by a Finnish ethnomusicologist prof. A.O. Väisänen in 1949 ["The Melody of Kalevala / Kalevalan sävelmä", The Yearbook of Kalevala Society 29, pp. 401-438]. 

Hungarians in a congress in Helsinki 1965, made the articles of the second wave. Fenno-Ugric Society has collected the articles into a book in 1968.

Bela C. Nagy introduced three common Fenno-Ugric melodic types: 

a) "Litania" (litany), b) "Kalevala" and c) "Klage" (lament). Besides of Fenno-Ugric material he compares these melodies with Russian bylinas, Romanian laments, Indian and Chuvass melodies [Bela C. Nagy. 'Finnisch-ugrische Elemente in der ungarischen Volksmusik', Congressus secundus internationalis Fenno-ugristarum, Helsinki 1965, Societas Fenno-Ugrica, Helsinki 1968]. 

The Kalevala-type list in György Szomjas-Schiffert's article consists of five different types [György Szomjas-Schiffert: Der Kalevala-Typ in den gemeinsamen Melodien der finno-ugrischen Völker, 1965]. Lajos Vargyas in his article 'Zur Methodik der vergleichenden finnisch-ugrischen Musikwissenschaft' compares the Kalevala melodic type with Romanian and Sicilian laments, Serbian women's songs and some ancient Danish ballads [Vargyas 1968].

Besides of this collection of articles there are only a few ethnomusicologists [Fritz Bose 1938, László Vikár 1975 etc.] who have written something about the subject. 

Some 50 or more years ago, around the Second World War there were not good enough possibilities to gather and listen to the different musical cultures of the world. Today we are in a better situation with our collections of the music of South American Indians as well as the Koryaks or Udeges of the Far East.


Concerning myself - everything (the idea of international comparison of the rune melodies) began actually in the end of 1980's [about 20 years ago], when I got a hold of a LP-record made by an Institute in Graz, Austria, which 

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was performed by the Kirghizes in Afghanistan. It included songs, which were quite similar when compared with the Finnish Rune-song tradition, which we call "Kalevala singing style". In the wider sense, it may include singing of the Kalevala poetry as well as lament singing styles or even shamanistic songs. The most important feature is the melodic line of the songs. 

In the background there was already another shock - years back - a transcription written by Paul Klee. It was found from his diary in 1913, written up from Tunisian Beduins. This example is even today one of the purest similarities compared to our Fenno-Ugric Kalevala tunes. 

(The main feature of our thinking is to find the differences between our musical heritage and the surrounding music cultures - instead of finding the similarities, which can connect our past to the others - even the global history.) 

The more we try to find the differences, the more weight those differences seem to carry. So we are diving in the middle of smaller and smaller details of a fractal world instead of seeing the big picture. In other words: the more we are concentrating on the minimal differences, the bigger (in meaning) those focused areas are becoming and the lesser the meaning of the outside events will be.

If we compare our own music culture with the music of the whole world, ours will become smaller and smaller, especially because of the widening of our knowledge about the music of the other cultures.

The first thing is to configure, to determine the term "Kalevala-type rune singing".

The main features - understandable to everybody - without the understanding of special music terminology - is the musical form of A & B - so, that the A-motive is sung somehow higher than the B-motive. The musical outline can be represented in a form of Roman numerals (I-) V-II instead of the second B-phrase, which regarding  this aspect could be written in the form of (I-V) IV-I. The numbers are the steps of the used musical (mostly pentatonic, sometimes even three tones) scale - independent whether the scale is in a major or minor mode. A simpler variation of this could be for example a three-tone scale in a litany form (A, A1, A2 etc.)

The relative musical forms may introduce the same features in a form of V-I & IV-I (or even IV-I & III-I, as in some lament songs) or in a form of V-II & IV-II as in many Middle Asian cultures, where the first degree of the scale (the borduna voice or the finalis) is played as a continuous pedal tone. It has to remind, that the amount and order of A's and B's can change, especially if the song performance is improvised. In those cases also the rhythmical figure can 


p. 148 (picture I)

p. 149

change in a remarkable way from phrase to phrase. In the Finnish "originals" we have mostly only the stagnated relict of 5/4 rhythm. Especially in the litany or lament songs, the length of the phrases can change so, that the first phrase is usually shorter, "introductive", and the second phrase longer, more varying. In those cases the difference between V and IV can be vague or even nonexistent.


(picture II - From the Bear Feast of Mansi's, Helsinki 2000 - sangultap)


Quite often, the melodic figures can be found from the introduction parts of a tune, as if they were represented as frames, hinting to something old. This phenomenon could be compared to the annual meeting of some whale tribes. Those gatherings begin always with the best-known melodies of the previous year.

The playing of these examples does not mean, that those music performances are directly related to each other. We just hear them in order to invoke the questions in our minds about the possibilities of ancient connections - or the certain steps in developiment of the human musical mind. It means, that a musical feature can be a tradition carrier of a certain epoch in the global human history, not only a specific mark of some small tribe somewhere in the middle of nowhere. The earlier scientific opinion has estimated this type of similarities not as a result of ancient contacts but as signs of "virgin birth" in different geographical areas, independent of each other. If it would be so, it can anyway be a sign of a certain step or level of human musical development. If so, the question is: Is there a level of musical thinking, which could be older than this difference between the two differently pitched phrases? 


If we look at the music in general as information, the first thing is to understand the binary elements of musical figures - in spite of, whether we are speaking about human or animal communication. 

I have found at least one way from the Fire Land (Ona/Selknam Indians) and the Pacific (Papua, New Guinea etc.). Shaman songs of Selknams are constructed from the material of a triad (I-III-V). When improvising, they 

p. 150

just sing those three tones in a chaotic, unpredictable way. In the same sense, the solo vocal styles of the Northern hemisphere play "game" with phrases "pumping" shorter and longer. So, the oldest musical forms are just anything, which can be divided into two. The next step in the history of music is to use the differences - not of different tone length or pitch - of entire phrases.

The listening of this music with the finding clear similarities between those different cultures must be connected to the more general ideas of historical relationships and communication possibilities and even long contacts of different linguistic groups in the Middle East and other places in the past. Some linguists - for example - have found a lot of similarities between Finno-Ugric, Dravidian and Sumerian languages [Hodjjat Assadian & Panu Aukusti Hakola: Sumerian and Proto-Duraljan, Kuopio, Finland 2003, 200 p.]. We should be able to compare these phenomena, the genetic and the other features in order to get a better understanding of our distant past. If we have enough courage to compare the languages, so why not to compare also the music? The way of so-called comparative musicology is not at all going towards the dead end. We are just in the beginning of knowing the total amount of different music cultures on earth. We are also beginning to configure song lines of certain melodic types, to see the similarities between Ainu bear rite songs and some Tamil melodies, wedding music of Afghanistan or Turkmenistan, as well as laments of Samoa an so on. 

If we find this common melodic type even from the prayer invoice songs performed from the minarets of Sarajevo, we have to understand, that an immense old melodic type was taken into use for different religious purposes. The melodies had already been there somewhere; they were not invented just for Islam. At the same time we have to admit, that nobody knows, who originally created these melodies.

It is easier to say, where there are difficulties finding Kalevala type rune melodies: North-East Siberia (also the Inuit), native North American Indians, the South American areas to the south from Amazon, South Africa (to the south from Sahara) and the classical music cultures of Near East and South-East Asia (In North Indian classical music I have found only one raga, which seems to be related to the music in question).

What I have got after this journey of an explorer? Combining my knowledge of Kalevala type structures partly with - for example - Iranian folk music, I feel myself to some degree being able to predict, to foretell the becoming progress of the music. It means, that I can identify myself with those people, whose own music I am listening to. I have felt, how my ability to understand new vast universes of foreign musical cultures has exploded suddenly. At the 

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same time the meaning of Western Classical music has faded. Its area in my musical world has lessened, because totally new areas have appeared to the sight.

After making this journey, tracking the song lines of so-called Kalevala melodic type, I am not sure anymore, that the music, which we call our national epos, is at all of Fenno-Ugric origin. On the contrary, it seems, that this musical feature is a track of (a message from) an ancient epoch of human development. The track is so old, that it has spread almost everywhere on the globe. So instead of ensuring my own Fenno-Ugric identity I can feel belonging to something, which includes a very vast and very old tradition. In the search of our Fenno-Ugric roots I have found something more important, the common roots of all human beings. When loosing a small bit of my own identity and own security, instead I have grown to identify myself bit more with the group identity of the whole human race. 

I accept this exchange deal.


Ilpo Saastamoinen






Kalevala-themes (a collection):

1) Kirghizes of Afghanistan: Manas (Adepaphon 002; A1)

2) Maktim Taytshi (A3)

3) Kirgiz bay (A8) (khomuz?)*

4) Bayan sun, Mongolia (LPX 18014) 

5) Uighurs: Mao zhuxi... (China Record Company M-2001)

6) Beduines (+rabab) (Philips 427029 NE)

7) Yörük - women's dance, Turkey (Orient/Occident)

8) Dance tune ( fl+dr) Algeria (Africa VDE 30425, B16)

9) Charef Zerouki: Al’ waa’d arrmani, Algeria (ORB 047, A2)

10) Cheb Khaled: Halfa manarkebch, Algeria (MLP 305, A3)

11) Women’s grievance song  (Australian desert aborigenes) (AHM 4210, B2)

12) Shaman song - Ainus - (Anna Czekanovska's coll.)

13) Tagi-lullaby ’The Music of Samoa’ (HLS 55, A5)

14) Lullaby ’The Music of Samoa’ (HLS 55, A6)

15) Casual song (?), Papua, New Guinea (LLST 7370, B8)

16) South East Wind song, Australia (AIAS 14, A8)

* 15 source for the numbers 1-3: 

R. Dor & C. M. Naumann: Musik aus Afghanistan: Kirghisen (Pamir area)

A: 1-3-5-6-(9-12), B: 1§7-20-21-23

Adevaphon 002; Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1978

p. 152

17) Suka yallari, India - Karnataka (BM SL 5103, A11)

18) Cremation (?), Ceylon Playa Sound (PS 33156, B1)

19) Iqbal Jogi y su grupo: Momil rano (Thar-desert, India)  (CFE/GS 11025, A1)

20) English (?) music theme, Madras (UPA 8483, B6)

21) Aquanusa - Healing Chant, Cuna-indians (FE 4326, A4)

22) Curing song - Cuna-indians (FMS NSA 002, B8)

23) Thanksgiving chant - Seneca-Irokeses (AFS L6) 



Caution: This is a musician's, not a scientist's attitude. Therefore there are no transcriptions of Iranian music - only scale degrees after listening to the material superficially once or twice. There is so much music in the world to listen to...


Iran: In order to connect Iranian folk music tradition with some other non-European music cultures, the method could be comparing the elements of "Kalevala" -styles in different folk music material: 


A) A/B structures

B) "higher - lower" -differences: V-(b)II/I & IV-I or IV-I & (b)III-I

C) "short - long" -differences (~ 2/8 - 3/8); 2/4 -3/4; 2 bars - 3 bars etc.)




For example > 

The local Iranian Music 1 - Iranian Music Association

(ed. by prof. Hamid Reza Ardalan): 

The Music of Khorasan I - Cassette II A-side: 

2. M. vocal & dutar -type instr. 

- 4/4; VI-IV & V-III(-II) & IV-II & I-III-II-I-III-II etc. descending

(played with triplet feel) - with fifth (and sometimes the first) on the pedal 

- instr. solos in: 5/8 = 2+3

Cassette III A-side: 

3. M. vocal & dutar -type instr. 

(rubato with pedal tone - 1st degree of the scale): 

V-(-bVI)-(-IV)-bIII-(-bII)-I (litany type) + instr: IV-V-IV-bIII-bII-I 

6. M. vocal & dutar -type instr. (rubato):

quite similar as N:o 3-5 (the same performer).

- A: V-(IV-bIII)-II & B: IV-(bIII-II) -I

Cassette IV A-side (the best example!):

1. M. vocal & dutar -type instr. - (bIII-IV-) V-II(-I) & II-(bIII)-IV-(bII)-I


The local Iranian Music 4 - The Music of Lorestan I

Cassette I A-side, n:o 8: (male vocal -solo): A = V-IV-II & B = II-V-I

b) Cassette I B-side, n:o 5: (male choir & zurna):

Cassette I B-side: N:o 5. Male choir, zurna(?); 

A: (II-bIII)-V-IV-bIII-II & B: IV-bIII-II-I (AAABB[B]) (~ Kalevala-style?)


The local Iranian Music 13:  The Music of Khorasan (2)

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Cassette I (/VI) B-side: 

1. Dutar -type instr.- 4/4: V-bVI-II (break)& IV?-I (break) = short A + long B 

6.Dutar -type instr.  - 3/4 - in medium tempo  III-II & III-II-I (+ I-low V-I)

Theme: A: V-IV-III-II (-V), B: (IV)-III-II > III-II-I (or: IV-II & III-I)

(~ Kalevala!)

Cassette (11) V (/VI) B-side:

2.Zurna -type instr. + dr - ("Ala göz...") - V-II & II-bIII-IV(-I)-IV-II 

(~ "Kalevala" with 2. degree finalis)


[This Iranian collection is situated for example in the Global Music Centre, Helsinki]


Extra note pictures:

10.12.2000 klo 19 Teatteri Avoimet Ovet, Helsinki

- Bear Feast -consert from Hanti-Mansijsk (in writer's own collection)

- J. S. Bach: Partita I (for piano): II row in g-minor: V-II & IV-I.


Some analyzes of LP-examples (> p. 148, picture I):

N:o 1) Manas - Kirghizes of Afghanistan: IV-V-I + I-IV-I

N:o 3) Kirgiz bay: V-II + IV-V-I

N:o 4) Bayan sun, Mongolia: VIII-IV + bVII-I

N:o 7) Yörük - Turkey: I-V + IV-I

N:o 21) Aquanusa: V-I + IV-I


If the material variations are improvised, even three tones are enough to get a complex result, which is totally unpredictable to the listener. The earlier german way of seeing five-tone scale as a general primitive feature in the evolution of music was united with the turkish way of seeing it as a typical feature of former middle-Asian cultures. The general opinion of those days and even nowadays is, that with five tones it is impossible contruct complicate music! This opinion is a fake and primitive in itself. The people have always known, how to construct complex/complicate music. Because for that we only need 1 and 0 (like computer). Seven note scale is already too much for our purposes, because we need only two in order to compose 

p. 154

complex music. The question is too complicated to treat in this context. I have written about the problem in my books.


Postscript (2007):

For me - it is clear, that when analyzing the rune melodies it is not enought to have the same attitude as when one is studying the Bible - that the answers should be found straight from the object itself. It is the question about general analyzing of improvisation, which imitates the product of (not predetermined) chance. It demands absolutely - on the global level - comparison of different ways of improvisation in different cultures.


The challenge in this situation is as follows:


1a) Is the beginning of the oldest stratums of improvisation in the music of Jivaro indians (Amazon), Ona-indians (Fire land), in the playing of coffee mortar among the bedouines (North Africa) or the hatchand-sticks of Nivkhies in  Kamtchatka? Those types of music I call as "one-ow" (1-0) -music (like computers). In that type of music any individual variable (pitch, tone length etc.) changes un predictably. Is the beginning of everything (in music) the ability to differentiate two figures?

A) Variable levels: music (1) - silence (0); the amount of "cuckoo calls"

B) Music - non-music: the disc jockeys "clockwise / counterclockwise"

C) Whatever pairs of variables like pitch (high/low) and time (long/short)

D) Pairs of motives (themes) 

- If they are repeating themselves, they are in "order" and possible to learn by heart, belong to the traditional part of the culture and are thus connected with the group identity.

- If they are unpredetermined series of factors, they are chaotic, unpredetermined 'improvisations' and thus are connected with the individual, personal identity.

Example from the improvisation (of two motives) with hanti/mansi nares juh: 

100-100-10000-110-10-10000 etc... (7x1 & 14x0).

The animals and human beings have always known, how to make "simple" and "complex" music! There is no evolution or development in music from "simple/primitive" to "comlicated/complex".There are only variations and differences in different times, in the different areas and in the different cultures!

1b) Is for example the horizontal one-tone ('short-long') telegraphing comparable with the former - as the 'nordic' variation of the oldest level 

p. 155

in the 'evolution' of music? (Not to forget the didgeridoo's of Australian aborigenes...)

1c) If there is this kind of contrast at all, so how it is connected to the nordic  frame drum -type and the cylinder drum of the southern side of globe? Is there any reason for the double drums of north-Africa, near-East, and Indian tabla-drums to situate between those north-south -opposites? Are there differences between the nomads and agriculture peoples in the effortlessness to transport the drums?


2a) Is the lament singing of northern hemisphere (fenno-ugric, albanian etc.) the first (oldest) phenomenon, which exploits whole 'horizontal' musical figures (for example longer phrases like V-I + IV-I instead of mere differences of pitch or in time values like 2/8 contra 3/8). In that case could this be a totally new developmental phase of mankind in the production of music?

2b) Is the eastern saami (Scolt s. & Kola s.) personal song with AB-form (like 2a) a secular equivalent to the lament songs? Which connection do they have with the ("only") song of province of Wu in China or of the Murui indians in south America?

2c) Has the area of Mesopotamia - with the musical structures of AB - something to do with this phenomenon? For example:  The local Iranian Music I (ed. by prof. Hamid Reza Ardalan): The Music of Khorasan I, C-cassette V, B-side:

N:o 3. Male voice singing & dutar? A = (bIII-IV)-V-I & B = IV-(bII)-I


3) In the middle Asia and partly in the Arabic and Persian world  there is a similar structural phenomenon (V-II + IV-II with the steady borduna voice on the I degree). (The basic tone of the scale is here the borduna voice in the background.) Should it be included and ranked as the parallel of lament type singing? 


As an example: 

The Khorasan Music (II) / Cassette (11) V (/VI) B-side:

2.Zurna -type instr. + dr - ("Ala göz...") - V-II & II-bIII-IV(-I)-IV-II 

(~ "Kalevala" with finalis on the 2. degree)


4) When combining these version, can one call this AB-structure (V-II + IV-I) "Kalevala type", which could represent the musical figures of the third generation?

For example:

a) C- cassette "The local Iranian Music 4 (ed. by prof. Hamid Reza Ardalan): 

The Music of Lorestan I", Cassette I A-side, n:o 8:

  (male vocal -solo): A = V-IV-II & B = II-V-I

p. 156

b) Cassette I B-side, n:o 5: (male choir & zurna): 

A = (II-bIII)-V-IV-bIII-II & B = IV-bIII-II-I 

c) a = V - (IV-bIII) - II & b = IV - (bIII) - II - I 

The Music of Khorasan I - Cassette IV A-side (the best example!):

1. Male vocal & dutar -type instr. - (bIII-IV-) V-II(-I) & II-(bIII)-IV-(bII)-I


5) Finally - the transcription of the famous painter Paul Klee from Tunis 1914:


(picture III - Paul Klee: Skizze vom 14. April 1914, Tunis-Hammament)


("Tagebücher von Paul Klee", M. DuMont Schauberg, Köln 1957, s. 297

in: Peter Gradenwitz: Musik zwischen Orient und Okzidet. 

Heinrichshofen's Verlag, Wilhelmshaven-Hamburg 1977, s.20)


The structure: A: I-V-II & B: II-IV-I

Can one draw any conclusions about the possible age from the last mentioned example? We may only find, that the previously mentioned type of the musical structure appears clearly (besides of the arctic side) also in the north Africa (Alger, Tunis), among bedouines, on the certain districts of Iran (Khorasan, Lorestan), very clearly among Khirgizes and on the certain areas of northern India (small nomad groups, maybe among the dravidian language family) and Afghanistan, very clearly in the songs of Cuna indian cantula-shamans (San Blas islands on the Atlantic side of middle America. In this context we'll forget the song lines of Australian aboriginals, the laments from Samoa and Tonga etc.

I have often remarked, that the stagnated 5/4 form of finnish 'Kalevala' rune song is a mark of the last breaths of a music culture before its fading. But concerning the runo-songtexts as late as 1950's (like the recordings of Tennisova) we can say, that it was far from dying, as we can find out from finnish scientist Heikki Laitinen.

Finally I want first to enclose a quotation by Armas Launis concerning the mystery of Kalevala song. It's here just for fun, because I cannot translate it into good english:

p. 157

Armas Launis: Murjaanien maassa, WSOY 1927:

s.304 ...Kuluu kotvan aikaa, ennenkuin se (arabialainen kantele) on saatu viritetyksi. Erikoisella tavalla konettaan käsitellen kanteletaituri alkaa nyt soitella muuatta vilkasrytmistä kappaletta. Tutulta kuuluu hänen esityksensä, niin soittimen ääni kuin esityskappalekin. Noinhan soitteli minulle muutamana kesäisenä iltana Jehkin-Iivanakin pirtissään Suistamon Muuannolla. Olisinko silloin aavistanut kerran kuulevani samoja säveleitä Afrikan aavikoiden äärillä...

Secondly I make a short quotation from my own diary:

27.04.90 The airport of Dushanbe on the journey to Samarkand.

"Olen kuullut fenno-ugrilaista runolaulua täällä päivittäin - jopa koraania laulavalta sokealta katulaulajalta. Tänä aamuna heräsin ulkokovaäänisten Kalevala-melodiaan!"

("I have heard clear finnish Kalevala -rune singing here daily - even performed by a blind street singer when singing the Koran! This morning I woke up because of the Kalevala melody from the loudspeakers in the open air!")


(Hieman kirjallisuuslähteiden osalta viimeistelty versio Sheikin-kirjasta)


Hoddjat Assadian - Panu Aukusti Hakola 2003:

Sumerian and Proto-Duraljan*, Kuopio, Finland 2003. 

in: Yrjö Sakari Forsman Hist.-kielitiet. Tiedekunnan oppisalissa 1.10.1862

Tiedot Suomen-suwun muinaisuudesta - Yliopistollinen väitöskirja

* The word "Duraljan" comes from the synthesis of Dravidian, Uralic and Altaic languages as a branch of Nostratic/Eurasiatic macrofamilies.

Fritz Bose: Typen der Volksmusik in Karelien, Ein Reisebericht

in: Archiv für Musikforschung, Jahrgang 3:1, 1938

Werner Danckert: Melodic styles of the finno-ugric pastoral peoples

Studia memoriae Belae Bartók sacra, 1959, p. 173-181

Paul Klee: Skizze vom 14. April 1914, Tunis-Hammament

in: Tagebücher von Paul Klee, M. DuMont Schauberg, Köln 1957, s. 297

in: Peter Gradenwitz: Musik zwischen Orient und Okzidet. 

Heinrichshofen's Verlag, Wilhelmshaven-Hamburg 1977, s.20)

Ilmari Krohn: Melodien der Permier, SUST LVIII, 1928

Heikki Laitinen: Laulu muistinvaraisessa kulttuurissa 

in: Iski sieluihin salama SKS 92, 2003, ss. 289-301

- Runolaulu, ss. 30-35

in: Asplund ym., Suomen musiikin historia - Kansanmusiikki, WSOY 2006

Armas Launis: Über Art, Entstehung und Verbreitung der estnisch-finnischen Runenmelodien, SUST XXXI, Helsinki 1913

- Murjaanien maassa, WSOY 1927

- Eesti runoviisid / Estnische Runenmelodien, Tartu 1930

Timo Leisiö: Runoin virsistä Syrjälän Kaappoon polskaan. 

Etelä-Pohjanmaan historia VI. Vaasa 1987, p. 360–365

Bela C. Nagy: Finnisch-ugrische Elemente in der ungarischen Volksmusik,

in: Congressus secundus internationalis Fenno-ugristarum, Helsinki 1965, 

Societas Fenno-Ugrica, Helsinki 1968.

Ilpo Saastamoinen: Kansat soittavat (’Folks play’), Tammi, Helsinki 1985

Philosophy of ethnic music from the viewpoint of information theory 

- 143 world music  transcriptions from ~ 50 ethnic groups (incl. 18 yoiks)

- Keiteleen oudompi nuottikirja ('The stranger notebook from Keitele')

Univ. of Tampere, 1990; the "philosophical" basics of ethnic improvisation 

- 50 ethnic music transcriptions

p. 158

- www.ilposaastamoinen.fi (home pages)

- 90 music articles (in finnish) etc., etymologies of some musical terms (2014)

György Szomjas-Schiffert: 

Der Kalevala-Typ in den gemeinsamen Melodien der finno-ugrischen Völker

(A finnugorság ősi zenéje nyomában Különnyomat a Magvetö) 

in: Congressus secundus internationalis Fenno-ugristarum, Helsinki 1965, 

Societas Fenno-Ugrica, Helsinki 1968.

Lajos Vargyas: 

Zur Methodik der vergleichenden finnisch-ugrischen Musikwissenschaft

in: Congressus secundus internationalis Fenno-ugristarum, Helsinki 1965, 

Societas Fenno-Ugrica, Helsinki 1968.

László Vikár: Suomalais-ugrilaisten kansojen musiikki:

in: Péter Hajdú (toim.): Suomalais-ugrilaiset, SKS, Pieksämäki 1975

 A.O. Väisänen: The Melody of Kalevala / Kalevalan sävelmä, 

The Yearbook of Kalevala Society 29, 1949, pp. 401-438


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